60 Excellent Inventions in Metal Forming by A. Erman Tekkaya, Werner Homberg, Alexander Brosius

By A. Erman Tekkaya, Werner Homberg, Alexander Brosius

60 novel techniques in steel forming are offered and defined intimately. Contributions from said foreign scientists representing the state-of-art in steel forming open a basic view on fresh effects and a transparent view on calls for for brand new learn initiatives.

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3 Isotropic Yield Conditions For an isotropic material, the plastic behavior is independent of the loading direction and should be described with stress tensor invariants only. This includes the three principal stresses, which are particularly convenient to verify the convexity of a yield function. Classical isotropic yield conditions are those of Tresca and von Mises. 3) which reduces to von Mises for a = 2 or 4 and to Tresca for a = 1 or in the limit case a ! 1. This convex yield function was developed as a good approximation of selfconsistent crystal plasticity calculations.

Billet temperature rises as plastic strain increases. 5 Conclusion The proposed method of determining flow stress curve is simple to carry out under actual forming conditions and has an accuracy of within ˙5 %, and thus it is suitable for determining the flow stress curve under actual metal forming conditions, i. e. at large strains and high strain rate. Presently, this method is commonly used in Japan as a standard test of steels for cold forging. References 1. , 1965, Flow stress test and cold heading pressure of carbon steels.

Results show that the ageing of the surface treatment baths has no significant influence on the average Coulomb’s coefficient of friction for the wire drawing operation (Fig. 5). However, the scatter observed is significant when the baths are new or at the end of cycle (30 days). This result is explained by a poor growth rate of the phosphate grains during these periods [11]. The coefficient of friction for the direct extrusion operation increases with ageing of the phosphate bath but the scatter observed is independent of the ageing.

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