A Dictionary of intermediate japanese grammar = Nihongo by Seiichi Makino; Michio Tsutsui

By Seiichi Makino; Michio Tsutsui

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Extra info for A Dictionary of intermediate japanese grammar = Nihongo kihon bunpo jiten

Sample text

All the instances are dynamic, except for the instances with perception verbs, which are troublesome. 4. Needless to say, examples (21) to (23) earlier in this section also belong to this type. ’ (HC OE3 coaelive) (27) And and more more ov∼ over inacted and enacted and of Malmeseys of Malmeseys to this to this that that your your it it stablisshed established from hensforth from henceforth vessels vessels that that that that in in shal shall seid said no no vessell vessel be be be is by by thauctorite authority butte cask or or or buttes or casks in in brought brought realme realm aforsaid previously said in in shall shall be sold above iiij l∼i.

The acceptability of passivization correlates to some extent with transitivity: the more transitive a clause is, the more readily it can be passivised See also Lehmann (1991: 224ff) and Rice (1987b) for a similar argument. e. e. 1 In addition, when a lexical verb is transitive, such as a verb of creation or destruction (cf. Kozinsky 1980; Testelec 1998), passivisation is more easily achieved. The discussion of transitivity we have seen so far is a semanticbased one. e. an intransitive construction is a monovalent or one-participant construction and a transitive construction is a divalent/trivalent or two-/three-participant construction.

E. know sindon þa are those gelicad & pleased and . . PL œrran gewin swa earlier conflicts. NOM so swa lustsumlice . . to so enjoyable to wel well gehieranne hear ‘I don’t know why those earlier conflicts are so pleasing and so enjoyable for you Romans . . e. e. outer cause in nominative and experiencer in dative, as shown in (54). The passive is commonly known to involve valency alternation, and such change cannot be observed in (53). So instances like (53) also indicate that ‘be’ was used for the perfective auxiliary earlier.

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