By Elena Agarossi, Harvey Fergusson II
Drawing on often unpublished records, A country Collapses revises the normal realizing of a severe second within the background of global warfare II: the cave in of the Italian fascist regime and Italy's unconditional give up in September 1943. The publication argues that, in the course of their mystery negotiations prior to the overthrow of Mussolini in July 1943, either Italy and Britain negotiated in undesirable religion and with loads of duplicity. The ensuing misunderstandings and misjudgments ended in an by surprise lengthy and brutal crusade of conquest following Italy's quit.
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Additional resources for A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of September 1943
The landing in Sicily made plain the inadequacy of the Axis forces - there were two German divisions in Sicily - and the lack of Italian military preparation. The operation was executed with total control of the sea and overwhelming Allied air superiority. The operation of the scant Axis air forces was reduced by the Anglo-Americans' systematic destruction of the island's air bases. The clear disproportion between the forces was the main reason for the Italian army's disintegration. However, the scale of the phenomenon requires further explanation.
27 21 A Nation Collapses A document of November 1942 prepared by the State Department's Subcommittee on Security Problems of the Advisory Committee on Foreign Relations, chaired by Harley Notter, was much more precise. The document announced the principles to be applied to the occupation of Italy, in the likely event that "the hostilities [were] terminated by the unconditional surrender of the enemy": from the attribution of "absolute authority" to the military commander, to "indirect rule," that is, leaving as much as possible to local administration.
First the landing in Sicily and later the Italian campaign represented decisions that had 37 A Nation Collapses not been foreseen in the Allies' initial plans, but emerged as the result of a kind of double compromise between the British and American strategies on the one hand and between the contrasting Soviet and Western positions on opening a second front on the other. The first Anglo-American military plans for the Mediterranean were quite different from what the Italians supposed. In the Allied strategy for 1943, Italy had a decidedly secondary place.