By A. Rendle Short, C. L. G. Pratt and C. C. N. Vass (Auth.)
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Extra info for A Synopsis of Physiology
A leucopaenia (reduction in white cells) occurs in starvation, and in some individuals following the administration of certain chemicals—amidopyridine, sulphonamides, thiouracil. —There are similar wandering cells in the tissues which share in these functions. 1. Protect the body against micro-organisms by ingesting and destroying bacteria directly, or by forming substances which destroy bacteria (bacteriolysins). Polymorphonuclears are especially concerned in this process. 2. Aid in removal of damaged tissues, possibly in actual regeneration by promoting cell proliferation.
In healthy marrow multiplication of red cells is effected almost entirely in the primary and secondary erythroblasts. — 1. —Digestion of protein by a specific enzyme in the stomach produces a substance which is absorbed and stored in the liver and elsewhere. This substance is in some unknown way necessary for the maturation of megaloblasts to normoblasts. Evidence : (a) In pernicious anaemia, where the enzyme is missing, there is a great diminution in the number of circulating red blood-corpuscles, although the bone-marrow produces a great excess of megaloblasts ; (b) Pernicious anaemia is relieved by the ingestion of normal liver or its extract ; (c) Removal of large parts of the stomach in man may cause grave anaemia.
Blood of group O has no agglutinin in the cells and a and ß in the serum. —A drop of donor's blood can be tested against preserved stock sera belonging to groups A and B. Or donor's blood can be tested against patient's serum, it being noted whether any agglutination occurs in 5 minutes. Group A B is agglutinated by A, B , and O. „ A „ „ „ B and O. „ B „ „ „ A and O. „ O „ „ „ no other. Persons in group A B are universal recipients ; persons in group O are universal donors. Determination of the blood group is used in forensic medicine as a guide to the identity of the person from whom a blood-stain was derived, also to ascertain paternity.