By Berdanier, Carolyn D.; Berdanier, Lynnette A.; Zempleni, Janos
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Extra info for Advanced Nutrition : Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism
In small rodents direct measurement of body fat is possible; however, with larger animals it is not. Obesity, or excess fat stores, develops for a variety of reasons. Although excess body fat stores, or obesity, is considered a risk factor in a number of diseases, we have no permanent cure for the disorder. 10 are some of the reasons that excess body fatness develops. Obesity is probably the result of an interaction between genetics and environment. An individual may have inherited one or more mutated genes that influence the efficiency with which that individual uses the intake energy and converts it to stored energy.
3 gut hormone produced by the stomach and signals satiety information to the hypothalamus and also signals the release of growth hormone. Growth hormone stimulates protein synthesis and lipolysis. Plasma ghrelin levels are often reduced in obese individuals and substantially elevated in starving or malnourished people. It is likely that the increased muscle mass of the trained athlete can be explained in part by the exercise effect on not only ghrelin but also on the increased release of leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1).
Training or adaptation to exercise or work is thus characterized by decrease in RQ due to both an increase in the oxidation of fatty acids and an increase in the anaerobic use of glucose from glycogen. 7 gives some typical results of a comparison of trained and untrained subjects with respect to their oxygen and glucose use during a bout of exercise. Note that the untrained and trained subjects consumed the same amount of oxygen, but the trained subjects had a lower RQ. This means that the trained subjects were oxidizing some fatty acids.