Advanced Processes for 193-nm Immersion Lithography (SPIE by Yayi Wei

By Yayi Wei

This ebook is a entire consultant to complicated methods and fabrics utilized in 193-nm immersion lithography (193i). it really is a big textual content for these new to the sphere in addition to for present practitioners who are looking to develop their knowing of this most modern expertise. The publication can be utilized as path fabric for graduate scholars of electric engineering, fabric sciences, physics, chemistry, and microelectronics engineering and will even be used to coach engineers fascinated about the manufacture of built-in circuits. It offers suggestions for choosing serious fabrics (topcoats, photoresists, and antireflective coatings), and optimizing immersion approaches to make sure larger functionality and reduce defectivity at lower price. This publication additionally comprises sections on shrinking, trimming, and smoothing of the withstand trend to minimize characteristic sizes and line-edge roughness. eventually, it describes the new improvement of 193i together with double publicity and double patterning. Contents - Immersion Lithography and its demanding situations- approach Steps within the song- face up to Leaching and Water Uptake- touch perspective of Water on withstand Stacks- Topcoat and withstand for Immersion Lithography- Immersion Defects and illness relief suggestions- Antireflection Coatings and Underlayer expertise- withstand lower and Trim approaches- Double Exposures and Double Patterning- Line-edge Roughness of face up to styles- Extendibility of 193-nm Immersion Lithography (193i+)

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In general, materials with a higher glass transition temperature (Tg) have higher Young’s moduli. 30 For a resist thickness of 141 nm, the target feature is 45 nm 1:1 dense lines. With increasing dose, the resist lines become narrower and aspect ratio increases. 5 nm (–10% CD error), the surface tension of the rinse water will cause the lines to collapse. One conclusion from this work is that pattern collapse is becoming an increasingly important factor in limiting the size of the process window in 193nm lithography.

28 How surfactant prevents blob defect formation. (a) Low-solubility resist clusters in developer. (b) Surfactant molecules attach to the resist surface and surround the resist clusters. (c) The repulsive force prevents deposition of the resist clusters. 46 Chapter 2 As described in previous sections, surfactant rinses have been introduced to reduce line collapse or blob defects. Apparently, it is impractical to implement two separate surfactant rinses, due to capital equipment, software costs, and reduced throughput.

Process Steps in the Track 21 the wafer. For example, the pre-wet with PGMEA (propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate) is prohibited when coating some resists, because the solvent may elute photoacid generators out of the resist film and degrade its lithographic performance. 1 Material dispense The three chemicals used in a manufacturing fab (BARC, resist, or topcoat) are typically called materials. These materials are dispensed from a nozzle at the center above the wafer (Fig. 1(a)). During dispensing of the material, the wafer can either spin at a specified speed or not spin.

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