By Yayi Wei
This ebook is a entire consultant to complicated methods and fabrics utilized in 193-nm immersion lithography (193i). it really is a big textual content for these new to the sphere in addition to for present practitioners who are looking to develop their knowing of this most modern expertise. The publication can be utilized as path fabric for graduate scholars of electric engineering, fabric sciences, physics, chemistry, and microelectronics engineering and will even be used to coach engineers fascinated about the manufacture of built-in circuits. It offers suggestions for choosing serious fabrics (topcoats, photoresists, and antireflective coatings), and optimizing immersion approaches to make sure larger functionality and reduce defectivity at lower price. This publication additionally comprises sections on shrinking, trimming, and smoothing of the withstand trend to minimize characteristic sizes and line-edge roughness. eventually, it describes the new improvement of 193i together with double publicity and double patterning. Contents - Immersion Lithography and its demanding situations- approach Steps within the song- face up to Leaching and Water Uptake- touch perspective of Water on withstand Stacks- Topcoat and withstand for Immersion Lithography- Immersion Defects and illness relief suggestions- Antireflection Coatings and Underlayer expertise- withstand lower and Trim approaches- Double Exposures and Double Patterning- Line-edge Roughness of face up to styles- Extendibility of 193-nm Immersion Lithography (193i+)
Read or Download Advanced Processes for 193-nm Immersion Lithography (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. PM189) PDF
Similar manufacturing books
As chemical businesses try to be extra aggressive on this planet economic climate, it's crucial that their staff, together with revenues and advertising team of workers, in addition to administrative aid teams comprehend the elemental innovations of the technology upon which the relies. The authors, who've over a hundred years of mixed event within the chemical undefined, constructed this easy-to-read e-book to supply a primary realizing of the chemical for non-chemists and people poised to go into the chemical career.
Rotordynamics are of significant value within the layout, manufacture and meeting of turbomachines in addition to in making sure their secure operation. additionally vital are the dynamics of the root and its interplay with the dynamics of the rotor. This e-book is split into 4 components. Following a presentation of the elemental conception the dynamics of rotors supported on a number of bearings.
Due to Apple and shrewdpermanent mobilephone phenomenon, nearly all people has discovered the rising pattern of person adventure in layout. Kansei engineering is the strategy to accomplish that. This publication defines Kansei and Kansei Engineering, then describes intimately the applying and improvement method. It presents 30 case experiences than underscore the suggestions and show their sensible software.
What half does technological wisdom accumulation play in glossy financial progress? This publication investigates and examines the predictions of recent development concept, utilizing OECD production information. Its empirical findings painting a singular and complicated photo of the good points of long term development, the place technological wisdom construction and diffusion play a important half, along adaptations in capital and employment.
- Connective Technologies in the Supply Chain (Supply Chain Integration: Modeling, Optimization and Applications)
- Intelligent Energy Field Manufacturing: Interdisciplinary Process Innovations
- Manufactured Fibre Technology
- Value Creation: Strategies for the Chemical Industry
Additional info for Advanced Processes for 193-nm Immersion Lithography (SPIE Press Monograph Vol. PM189)
In general, materials with a higher glass transition temperature (Tg) have higher Young’s moduli. 30 For a resist thickness of 141 nm, the target feature is 45 nm 1:1 dense lines. With increasing dose, the resist lines become narrower and aspect ratio increases. 5 nm (–10% CD error), the surface tension of the rinse water will cause the lines to collapse. One conclusion from this work is that pattern collapse is becoming an increasingly important factor in limiting the size of the process window in 193nm lithography.
28 How surfactant prevents blob defect formation. (a) Low-solubility resist clusters in developer. (b) Surfactant molecules attach to the resist surface and surround the resist clusters. (c) The repulsive force prevents deposition of the resist clusters. 46 Chapter 2 As described in previous sections, surfactant rinses have been introduced to reduce line collapse or blob defects. Apparently, it is impractical to implement two separate surfactant rinses, due to capital equipment, software costs, and reduced throughput.
Process Steps in the Track 21 the wafer. For example, the pre-wet with PGMEA (propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate) is prohibited when coating some resists, because the solvent may elute photoacid generators out of the resist film and degrade its lithographic performance. 1 Material dispense The three chemicals used in a manufacturing fab (BARC, resist, or topcoat) are typically called materials. These materials are dispensed from a nozzle at the center above the wafer (Fig. 1(a)). During dispensing of the material, the wafer can either spin at a specified speed or not spin.