By Foad Arfaei Malekzadeh
This booklet describes cutting edge suggestions and the theoretical history for layout and research of excessive functionality RF/Microwave transmitters. It introduces new, powerful linearization/efficiency enhancement concepts, appropriate to the entire switched mode strength amplifiers. Novel research tools linked to those new concepts also are brought and aiding size effects are documented. cutting edge graphical illustration equipment are used to assist the reader comprehend the problem intuitively. functions for the innovations mentioned are very huge, starting from info convertors to RF/Microwave/mm-wave wireless/wire line transmitters. The authors have kept away from utilizing long formulation within the dialogue and feature used an intuitive and straightforward method of struggle through the mandatory details. Readers will achieve necessary figuring out of the dither phenomenon, its mechanism, impression and undesired unwanted side effects. the unconventional architectures brought are uncomplicated, don’t require complex DSP recommendations and are effortless to enforce.
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Additional info for Analog Dithering Techniques for Wireless Transmitters
The DF definition is based on the simple fact that many systems are nonlinear except in limited operation regimes. , chaotic behavior). The mathematics required to understand nonlinear behavior is considerably more complicated than that needed for the linear case. There is one additional theme underlying all the developments: describing function approaches allow one to solve a wide variety of problems in nonlinear system analysis and design via the use of direct and simple extensions of linear systems analysis tools.
2 Circuit Topologies From the various switched mode topologies, two important switched mode amplifiers are discussed in this book, generating either square wave output voltage or square wave output current. Any other topology that has a satisfactory fast saturation, works fine with the dithering. 42 4 Architectures and Topologies (a) (b) y y D D x x -D -D Fig. 4 Input output characteristic of a ideal relay b limited slope limiter Class-D RF power amplifiers have been in use for a long time. The theoretical efficiency of a Class-D amplifier is 100 %, but in practice it is lower due to reactive power loss, which will be discussed in detail in Sect.
6, the feasibility of dithering of a nonlinear block depends on the zero input slope gain of the block. Therefore, any kind of switched mode PA, that has a high ‘enough’ slope gain can be dithered. If the gain is not enough the dithered gain may drop a lot due to dithering, which will decrease the power added efficiency. Therefore, it can be understood that dithering doesn’t work quite well with linear PA classes like A; AB; C or J. 3 Dithering Limitations Fig. 12 The zero crossing frequency of the sum of two sinusoids at frequencies fr and fd ; with amplitudes r and A; representing signal and dither amplitudes, versus A=r: 55 f (Zero Crossing Frequency)/2 fr fd 1 fr / fd A/ r The second issue, besides slope gain is the dithering frequency versus process technology.